Keyword: accelerating-gradient
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MOYE3 Experiments on a Conduction Cooled Superconducting Radio Frequency Cavity with Field Emission Cathode cavity, niobium, experiment, SRF 16
  • Y. Ji, R. Dhuley, C.J. Edwards, J.C.T. Thangaraj
    Fermilab, Batavia, Illinois, USA
  • V. Korampally, D. Mihalcea, O. Mohsen, P. Piot, I. Salehinia
    Northern Illinois University, DeKalb, Illinois, USA
  Funding: The project is supported by DOE HEP Accelerator Stewardship award to Fermilab and Northern Illinois University
To achieve Ampere-class electron beam accelerators the pulse delivery rate need to be much higher than the typical photo injector repetition rate of the order of a few kilohertz. We propose here an injector which can, in principle, generate electron bunches at the same rate as the operating RF frequency. A conduction-cooled superconducting radio frequency (SRF) cavity operating in the CW mode and housing a field emission element at its region of high axial electric field can be a viable method of generating high-repetition-rate electron bunches. In this paper, we report the development and experiments on a conduction-cooled Nb3Sn cavity with a niobium rod intended as a field emitter support. The initial experiments demonstrate ~0.4 MV/m average accelerating gradient, which is equivalent of peak gradient of 3.2 MV/m. The measured RF cavity quality factor is 1.4 × 108 slightly above our goal. The achieved field gradient is limited by the relatively low input RF power and by the poor coupling between the external power supply and the RF cavity. With ideal coupling the field gradient can be as high as 0.6 MV/m still below our goal of about 1 MV/m
slides icon Slides MOYE3 [1.444 MB]  
DOI • reference for this paper ※ doi:10.18429/JACoW-NAPAC2022-MOYE3  
About • Received ※ 01 August 2022 — Revised ※ 03 August 2022 — Accepted ※ 05 August 2022 — Issue date ※ 30 September 2022
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MOZE4 Ceramic Enhanced Accelerator Structure Low Power Test and Designs of High Power and Beam Tests cavity, electron, impedance, simulation 49
  • H. Xu, M.R. Bradley, L.D. Duffy, M.A. Holloway, J. Upadhyay
    LANL, Los Alamos, New Mexico, USA
  Funding: Research was supported by the Laboratory Directed Research and Development program of Los Alamos National Laboratory, under project number 20210083ER.
A ceramic enhanced accelerator structure (CEAS) uses a concentric ceramic ring placed inside a metallic pillbox cavity to significantly increase the shunt impedance of the cavity. Single cell standing wave CEAS cavities are designed, built, and tested at low power at 5.1 GHz. The results indicate 40% increase in shunt impedance compared to that of a purely metallic pillbox cavity. A beam test setup has been designed to use a single cell CEAS cavity to modulate a 30-keV direct-current (DC) electron beam at an accelerating gradient of 1 to 2 MV/m to verify the beam acceleration capability of the CEAS concept and to study the potential charging effect on the ceramic component during the operation. Another single cell standing wave CEAS cavity has been designed for high power test at 5.7 GHz for the high accelerating gradient capability.
slides icon Slides MOZE4 [1.652 MB]  
DOI • reference for this paper ※ doi:10.18429/JACoW-NAPAC2022-MOZE4  
About • Received ※ 01 August 2022 — Revised ※ 07 August 2022 — Accepted ※ 09 August 2022 — Issue date ※ 07 October 2022
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MOZE5 Simulation and Experimental Results of Dielectric Disk Accelerating Structures experiment, wakefield, impedance, simulation 52
  • S. Weatherly, E.E. Wisniewski
    Illinois Institute of Technology, Chicago, Illinois, USA
  • D.S. Doran, C.-J. Jing, J.F. Power, E.E. Wisniewski
    ANL, Lemont, Illinois, USA
  • B.T. Freemire, C.-J. Jing
    Euclid Beamlabs, Bolingbrook, USA
  Funding: Contract DE-SC0019864 to Euclid Beamlabs LLC. AWA work from U.S. DOE Office of Science under Contract DE-AC02-06CH11357. Chicagoland Accelerator Science Traineeship U.S. DOE award number DE-SC-0020379
A method of decreasing the required footprint of linear accelerators and improving their energy efficiency is to employ Dielectric Disk Accelerators (DDAs) with short RF pulses ( ∼  9 ns). A DDA is an accelerating structure that utilizes dielectric disks to improve the shunt impedance. Two DDA structures have been designed and tested at the Argonne Wakefield Accelerator. A single cell clamped DDA structure recently achieved an accelerating gradient of 1{02} MV/m. A multi-cell clamped DDA structure has been designed and is being fabricated. Simulation results for this new structure show a 1{08} MV/m accelerating gradient with 400 MW of input power with a high shunt impedance and group velocity. The engineering design has been improved from the single cell structure to ensure consistent clamping over the entire structure.
slides icon Slides MOZE5 [9.338 MB]  
DOI • reference for this paper ※ doi:10.18429/JACoW-NAPAC2022-MOZE5  
About • Received ※ 02 August 2022 — Revised ※ 08 August 2022 — Accepted ※ 21 August 2022 — Issue date ※ 06 October 2022
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MOPA46 Cryogenic Dielectric Structure with GΩ/m Level Shunt Impedance impedance, cryogenics, simulation, acceleration 157
  • R.A. Kostin, C. Jing
    Euclid Beamlabs, Bolingbrook, USA
  Shunt impedance is one of the most important parameters characterizing particle acceleration efficiency. It is known that RF losses are reduced at cryogenic temperatures. For example, a record high shunt impedance of 350 MΩ/m was demonstrated recently for all metal X-band accelerating structure, which is more than 2 times higher than that at room temperature. In this article we present a novel hybrid dielectric structure which can achieve even higher shunt impedance due to the fact that losses in dielectric materials reduced much more than in pure copper.  
DOI • reference for this paper ※ doi:10.18429/JACoW-NAPAC2022-MOPA46  
About • Received ※ 12 August 2022 — Revised ※ 16 August 2022 — Accepted ※ 23 August 2022 — Issue date ※ 17 September 2022
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MOPA74 Design of a W-Band Corrugated Waveguide for Structure Wakefield Acceleration wakefield, GUI, electron, acceleration 210
  • B. Leung, X. Lu, C.L. Phillips, P. Piot
    Northern Illinois University, DeKalb, Illinois, USA
  • D.S. Doran, X. Lu, P. Piot, J.G. Power
    ANL, Lemont, Illinois, USA
  Current research on structure wakefield acceleration aims to develop radio-frequency structures that can produce high gradients, with work in the sub-terahertz regime being particularly interesting because of the potential to create more compact and economical accelerators. Metallic corrugated waveguides at sub-terahertz frequencies are one such structure. We have designed a W-band corrugated waveguide for a collinear wakefield acceleration experiment at the Argonne Wakefield Accelerator (AWA). Using the CST Studio Suite, we have optimized the structure for the maximum achievable gradient in the wakefield from a nominal AWA electron bunch at 65 MeV. Simulation results from different solvers of CST were benchmarked with each other, with analytical models, and with another simulation code, ECHO. We are investigating the mechanical design, suitable fabrication technologies, and the possibility to apply advanced bunch shaping techniques to improve the structure performance.  
poster icon Poster MOPA74 [1.518 MB]  
DOI • reference for this paper ※ doi:10.18429/JACoW-NAPAC2022-MOPA74  
About • Received ※ 30 July 2022 — Revised ※ 03 August 2022 — Accepted ※ 07 August 2022 — Issue date ※ 26 August 2022
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TUPA82 Transverse Stability in an Alternating Symmetry Planar Dielectric Wakefield Structure wakefield, simulation, experiment, quadrupole 519
  • W.J. Lynn, G. Andonian, N. Majernik, S.M. OTool, J.B. Rosenzweig
    UCLA, Los Angeles, California, USA
  • D.S. Doran, S.Y. Kim, J.F. Power, E.E. Wisniewski
    ANL, Lemont, Illinois, USA
  • P. Piot
    Northern Illinois University, DeKalb, Illinois, USA
  Funding: DE-SC0017648 - AWA.
Dielectric Wakefield Acceleration (DWA) is a promising technique for realizing the next generation of linear colliders. It provides access to significantly higher accelerating gradients than traditional radio-frequency cavities. One impediment to realizing a DWA-powered accelerator is the issue of the transverse stability of the beams within the dielectric structure due to short-range wakefields. These short-range wakefields have a tendency to induce a phenomenon known as single-bunch beam breakup, which acts as its name implies and destroys the relevant beam. We attempt to solve this issue by leveraging the quadrupole mode excited in a planar dielectric structure and then alternating the orientation of said structure to turn an unstable system into a stable one. We examine this issue computationally to determine the limits of stability and based on those simulations describe a future experimental realization of this strategy.
DOI • reference for this paper ※ doi:10.18429/JACoW-NAPAC2022-TUPA82  
About • Received ※ 02 August 2022 — Revised ※ 11 August 2022 — Accepted ※ 12 August 2022 — Issue date ※ 30 September 2022
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WEZE4 First High-Gradient Results of UED/UEM SRF Gun at Cryogenic Temperatures gun, cavity, SRF, cryogenics 607
  • R.A. Kostin, C. Jing
    Euclid Beamlabs, Bolingbrook, USA
  • D.J. Bice, T.N. Khabiboulline, S. Posen
    Fermilab, Batavia, Illinois, USA
  Funding: The project is funded by DOE SBIR #DE-SC0018621
Benefiting from the rapid progress on RF photogun technologies in the past two decades, the development of MeV range ultrafast electron diffraction/microscopy (UED and UEM) has been identified as an enabling instrumentation. UEM or UED use low power electron beams with modest energies of a few MeV to study ultrafast phenomena in a variety of novel and exotic materials. SRF photoguns become a promising candidate to produce highly stable electrons for UEM/UED applications because of the ultrahigh shot-to-shot stability compared to room temperature RF photoguns. SRF technology was prohibitively expensive for industrial use until two recent advancements: Nb3Sn and conduction cooling. The use of Nb3Sn allows to operate SRF cavities at higher temperatures (4K) with low power dissipation which is within the reach of commercially available closed-cycle cryocoolers. Euclid is developing a continuous wave (CW), 1.5-cell, MeV-scale SRF conduction cooled photogun operating at 1.3 GHz. In this paper, we present first high gradient results of the gun conducted in liquid helium.
slides icon Slides WEZE4 [2.817 MB]  
DOI • reference for this paper ※ doi:10.18429/JACoW-NAPAC2022-WEZE4  
About • Received ※ 05 August 2022 — Revised ※ 07 August 2022 — Accepted ※ 11 August 2022 — Issue date ※ 29 September 2022
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WEPA27 Effect of Duration of 120 °C Baking on the Performance of Superconducting Radio Frequency Niobium Cavities cavity, niobium, SRF, radio-frequency 683
  • B.D. Khanal
    ODU, Norfolk, Virginia, USA
  • P. Dhakal
    JLab, Newport News, Virginia, USA
  Over the last decade much attention was given in increasing the quality factor of superconducting radio frequency (SRF) cavities by impurity doping. Prior to the era of doping, the final cavity processing technique to achieve the high accelerating gradient includes the "in situ" low temperature baking of SRF cavities at temperature ~ 120°C for several hours. Here, we present the results of a series of measurements on 1.3 GHz TESLA shape single-cell cavities with successive low temperature baking at 120°C up to 96 hours. The experimental data were analyzed with available theory of superconductivity to elucidate the effect of the duration of low temperature baking on the superconducting properties of cavity materials as well as the RF performance. In addition, the RF loss related to the trapping of residual magnetic field refereed as flux trapping sensitivity was measured with respect to the duration of 120°C bake.  
DOI • reference for this paper ※ doi:10.18429/JACoW-NAPAC2022-WEPA27  
About • Received ※ 01 August 2022 — Revised ※ 07 August 2022 — Accepted ※ 11 August 2022 — Issue date ※ 19 August 2022
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WEPA52 Demonstration of Twice-Reduced Lorentz-Force Detuning in SRF Cavity by Copper Cold Spraying cavity, SRF, site, niobium 749
  • R.A. Kostin, C.-J. Jing, A. Kanareykin
    Euclid TechLabs, Solon, Ohio, USA
  • G. Ciovati
    JLab, Newport News, Virginia, USA
  Funding: The project is funded by DOE SBIR # DE-SC0019589
Superconducting RF (SRF) cavities usually are made from thin-walled high RRR Niobium and are susceptible to Lorentz Force Detuning (LFD) ’ cavity deformation phenomena by RF fields. In this paper, we present high gradient cryogenic results of an SRF cavity with two times reduced LFD achieved by copper cold spray reinforcement without sacrificing cavity flexibility for tuning. Finite-element model was developed first to find the best geometry for LFD reduction, which incorporated coupled RF, structural and thermal modules, and is also presented.
DOI • reference for this paper ※ doi:10.18429/JACoW-NAPAC2022-WEPA52  
About • Received ※ 27 July 2022 — Revised ※ 03 August 2022 — Accepted ※ 09 August 2022 — Issue date ※ 16 August 2022
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THYE5 Analysis of Low RRR SRF Cavities cavity, SRF, niobium, radio-frequency 877
  • K. Howard, Y.K. Kim
    University of Chicago, Chicago, Illinois, USA
  • D. Bafia, A. Grassellino
    Fermilab, Batavia, Illinois, USA
  Recent findings in the superconducting radio-frequency (SRF) community have shown that introducing certain impurities into high-purity niobium can improve quality factors and accelerating gradients. Success has been found in nitrogen-doping, diffusion of the native oxide into the niobium surface, and thin films of alternate superconductors atop a niobium bulk cavity. We question why some impurities improve RF performance while others hinder it. The purpose of this study is to characterize the impurity profile of niobium with a low residual resistance ratio (RRR) and correlate these impurities with the RF performance of low RRR cavities so that the mechanism of recent impurity-based improvements can be better understood and improved upon. Additionally, we performed surface treatments, low temperature baking and nitrogen-doping, on low RRR cavities to evaluate how the intentional addition of more impurities to the RF layer affects performance. We have found that low RRR cavities experience low temperature-dependent BCS resistance behavior more prominently than their high RRR counterparts. The results of this study have the potential to unlock a new understanding on SRF materials.  
slides icon Slides THYE5 [5.013 MB]  
DOI • reference for this paper ※ doi:10.18429/JACoW-NAPAC2022-THYE5  
About • Received ※ 03 August 2022 — Revised ※ 07 August 2022 — Accepted ※ 09 August 2022 — Issue date ※ 01 October 2022
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