Keyword: neutron
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MOODE1 Applications of Particle Accelerators linac, electron, site, target 1
  • M. Uesaka
    JAEC, Tokyo, Japan
  Applications of particle accelerators amid global policies of carbon neutrality and economic security. are reviewed. Downsizing of high energy large scaled accelerators by advanced technologies enables a variety of medical and industrial uses. One of the highlights is upgrade of sustainable supply chain of medical radioisotopes by the best mix of research reactors and accelerators. 99Mo/99mTc for diagnosis are going to be produced by low enriched U reactor and proton-cyclotron, electron rhodotron and electron linac. Moreover, the theranostics by 177Lu (beta) and 211At/225Ac (alpha) are going to be realized. Proton-cyclotron and electron linac are expected to produce them soon. This new affordable radiation therapy should play an important role in the IAEA project of Rays of Hopes. Next, proof-of-principle trails of on-site bridge inspection of the portable X-band (9.3 GHz) electron linac X-ray/neutron sources are under way. The technical guideline for the practical inspection is to be formed in a couple of years. Ultimate micro-accelerator for microbeam applications is dielectric laser accelerator, such as ACHIP project. Updated projects and results are also introduced.  
slides icon Slides MOODE1 [3.065 MB]  
DOI • reference for this paper ※ doi:10.18429/JACoW-NAPAC2022-MOODE1  
About • Received ※ 02 August 2022 — Revised ※ 09 August 2022 — Accepted ※ 10 August 2022 — Issue date ※ 11 August 2022
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MOPA02 Activation of the IBA Proteus One Proton Therapy Beamline Using BDSIM and FISPACT-II proton, shielding, radiation, simulation 59
  • E. Ramoisiaux, E. Gnacadja, C. Hernalsteens, N. Pauly, R. Tesse, M. Vanwelde
    ULB, Bruxelles, Belgium
  • C. Hernalsteens
    CERN, Meyrin, Switzerland
  Cyclotron-based proton therapy systems generate large fluxes of secondary particles due to the beam interactions with the beamline elements, with the energy degrader being the dominant source. Compact systems exacerbate these challenges for concrete shielding and beamline element activation. Our implementation of the Rigorous Two-Step method uses Beam Delivery Simulation (BDSIM), a Geant4-based particle tracking code, for primary and secondary particles transport and fluence scoring, and FISPACT-II for time-dependent nuclear inventory and solving the rate equations. This approach is applied to the Ion Beam Applications (IBA) Proteus®ONE (P1) system, for which a complete model has been built, validated, and used for shielding activation simulations. We detail the first simulations of the activation on quadrupole magnets in high-fluence locations downstream of the degrader. Results show the evolution of the long-lived nuclide concentrations for short and long timescales throughout the facility lifetime for a typical operation scenario.  
poster icon Poster MOPA02 [0.553 MB]  
DOI • reference for this paper ※ doi:10.18429/JACoW-NAPAC2022-MOPA02  
About • Received ※ 02 August 2022 — Revised ※ 09 August 2022 — Accepted ※ 19 August 2022 — Issue date ※ 21 September 2022
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TUXD3 Production Pathways for Medically Interesting Isotopes target, radiation, proton, isotope-production 271
  • L. Rosado Del Rio
    University of Puerto Rico, Rio Piedras Campus, San Juan, Puerto Rico
  • L.F. Dabill
    Coe College, Cedar Rapids, Iowa, USA
  • A. Hutton
    JLab, Newport News, Virginia, USA
  Funding: LR was supported by the U.S. NSF REU at Old Dominion University Grant No. 1950141. AH was supported by the U.S. DOE, Office of Science, Office of Nuclear Physics under Contract No. DE-AC05-06OR23177
Radioisotopes are commonly used in nuclear medicine for treating cancer and new, more effective treatment options are always desired. As a result, there is a national need for new radioisotopes and ways to produce them. A computer program was created that evaluates the daughters for all known reactions of projectiles (gamma rays, protons or neutrons) with every stable target isotope by comparing the cross-sections for each reaction at a desired energy, and outputs a list of the potential daughter isotopes that are most likely to be generated. The program then evaluates the decay chains of these daughters to provide a list of the possible decay chains that contain the radioisotope of interest. By knowing the daughter production and decay chain for each isotope, it is possible to go from the desired radioisotope to the stable isotope that can be used as a target for its production. This project would facilitate the search for new pathways to creating useful theranostic isotopes.
slides icon Slides TUXD3 [0.591 MB]  
DOI • reference for this paper ※ doi:10.18429/JACoW-NAPAC2022-TUXD3  
About • Received ※ 17 July 2022 — Revised ※ 01 August 2022 — Accepted ※ 12 August 2022 — Issue date ※ 25 August 2022
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TUPA09 Designing Accelerator-Driven Experiments for Accelerator-Driven Reactors target, experiment, site, operation 360
  • M.A. Cummings, R.J. Abrams, R.P. Johnson, J.D. Lobo, T.J. Roberts
    Muons, Inc, Illinois, USA
  Muons, Inc., with its collaborators, to the best of our knowledge is the only one of the several reactor concept companies in the US that is concentrating on an accelerator-driven subcritical high-power reactor design. The major objection to such systems has been that short interruptions of beam of even a few seconds would turn off fission power long enough to induce temperature-gradient shocks and subsequent fatigue of solid fuel elements. Mu*STAR solves this problem by using a molten-salt fuel. Mu*STAR is a reactor design that not only includes a particle accelerator as an integral part, but has several innovative features that make it a compelling solution to many problems. We note that the ADSR concepts being pursued by the Chinese Academy of Science (ADANES) and the Belgians (MYRRHA) are based on traditional solid fuel elements and require exceptional stability from their accelerator.  
DOI • reference for this paper ※ doi:10.18429/JACoW-NAPAC2022-TUPA09  
About • Received ※ 03 August 2022 — Revised ※ 05 August 2022 — Accepted ※ 08 August 2022 — Issue date ※ 29 September 2022
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TUPA58 Iterative Tuning of the Beam Feedforward Controller for LANSCE LINAC Digital Low Level RF Control System controls, beam-loading, cavity, LLRF 475
  • S. Kwon, A.T. Archuleta, L.J. Castellano, M.S. Prokop, C. Rose, P.A. Torrez, P. Van Rooy
    LANL, Los Alamos, New Mexico, USA
  Funding: USDOE
This paper addresses an iterative particle beam phase and amplitude feedforward controller tuning method based on the gradient search approach. The method does not need an a priori plant model as it only needs data collected in previous experimental runs. The controller is implemented on a field programmable gate array (FPGA) equipped with a real-time operating system and a network connection. Data from each RF pulse is collected and sent via the network to the FPGA for processing. The controller tuning is performed between the RF pulses. Once the tuning is performed, the controller parameters are downloaded to the controller in the FPGA and new controller parameters are applied at the upcoming RF pulse
poster icon Poster TUPA58 [0.998 MB]  
DOI • reference for this paper ※ doi:10.18429/JACoW-NAPAC2022-TUPA58  
About • Received ※ 01 August 2022 — Revised ※ 09 August 2022 — Accepted ※ 10 August 2022 — Issue date ※ 07 September 2022
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TUPA69 Improving Cavity Phase Measurements at Los Alamos Neutron Science Center cavity, GUI, LLRF, controls 493
  • P. Van Rooy, A.T. Archuleta, L.J. Castellano, S. Kwon, M.S. Prokop, P.A. Torrez
    LANL, Los Alamos, New Mexico, USA
  Control stability of the phase and amplitude in the cavity is a significant contributor to beam performance. The ability to measure phase and amplitude of pulsed RF systems at accuracies of ± 0.1 degrees and ± 0.1 percent required for our systems is difficult, and custom-designed circuitry is required. The digital low-level RF upgrade at the Los Alamos Neutron Science Center is continuing to progress with improved cavity phase measurements. The previous generation of the cavity phase and amplitude measurement system has a phase ambiguity, which requires repeated calibrations to ascertain the correct phase direction. The new phase measurement system removes the ambiguity and the need for field calibration while improving the range and precision of the cavity phase measurements. In addition, the new digital low-level RF systems is designed to upgrade the legacy system without significant mechanical, electrical, or cabling changes. Performance data for the new phase measurement system is presented.  
DOI • reference for this paper ※ doi:10.18429/JACoW-NAPAC2022-TUPA69  
About • Received ※ 02 August 2022 — Revised ※ 11 August 2022 — Accepted ※ 21 August 2022 — Issue date ※ 08 September 2022
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WEPA25 Field Emission Mitigation in CEBAF SRF Cavities Using Deep Learning cavity, radiation, detector, linac 676
  • K. Ahammed, J. Li
    ODU, Norfolk, Virginia, USA
  • A. Carpenter, R. Suleiman, C. Tennant, L.S. Vidyaratne
    JLab, Newport News, Virginia, USA
  Funding: This material is based upon work supported by the U.S. Department of Energy, Office of Science, Office of Nuclear Physics under contract DE-AC05-06OR23177.
The Continuous Electron Beam Accelerator Facility (CEBAF) operates hundreds of superconducting radio frequency (SRF) cavities in its two main linear accelerators. Field emission can occur when the cavities are set to high operating RF gradients and is an ongoing operational challenge. This is especially true in newer, higher gradient SRF cavities. Field emission results in damage to accelerator hardware, generates high levels of neutron and gamma radiation, and has deleterious effects on CEBAF operations. So, field emission reduction is imperative for the reliable, high gradient operation of CEBAF that is required by experimenters. Here we explore the use of deep learning architectures via multilayer perceptron to simultaneously model radiation measurements at multiple detectors in response to arbitrary gradient distributions. These models are trained on collected data and could be used to minimize the radiation production through gradient redistribution. This work builds on previous efforts in developing machine learning (ML) models, and is able to produce similar model performance as our previous ML model without requiring knowledge of the field emission onset for each cavity.
poster icon Poster WEPA25 [1.586 MB]  
DOI • reference for this paper ※ doi:10.18429/JACoW-NAPAC2022-WEPA25  
About • Received ※ 01 August 2022 — Revised ※ 03 August 2022 — Accepted ※ 05 August 2022 — Issue date ※ 20 September 2022
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WEPA32 Spallation Neutron Source Cryogenic Moderator System Helium Gas Analysis System cryogenics, MMI, operation, target 699
  • B. DeGraff, L. Pinion
    ORNL RAD, Oak Ridge, Tennessee, USA
  • R. Armstrong, J. Denison, M.P. Howell, S.-H. Kim, D. Montierth
    ORNL, Oak Ridge, Tennessee, USA
  • M.D. Williamson
    LBNL, Berkeley, California, USA
  Funding: This work was supported by SNS through UT-Battelle, LLC, under contract DE-AC05-00OR22725 for the U.S. DOE.
The Spallation Neutron Source (SNS) at Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) operates the Cryogenic Moderator System (CMS). The CMS comprises a 20-K helium refrigerator and three helium to hydrogen heat exchangers in support of hydrogen cooled spallation moderation vessels. This system uses vessels filled with activated carbon as the final major component to remove oil vapor from the compressed helium in the cryogenic cold box. SNS uses a LINDE multi-component gas analyzer to detect the presence of contaminants in the warm helium flow upstream of the cold box including aerosolized oil vapor. The design challenges of installing and operating this analyzer on the CMS system due to normal system operating pressures will be discussed. The design, fabrication, installation, commissioning, and initial results of this system operation will be presented. Future upgrades to the analyzer system will also be discussed.
DOI • reference for this paper ※ doi:10.18429/JACoW-NAPAC2022-WEPA32  
About • Received ※ 06 August 2022 — Revised ※ 08 August 2022 — Accepted ※ 11 August 2022 — Issue date ※ 05 October 2022
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WEPA37 Benchmarking and Exploring Parameter Space of the 2-Phase Bubble Tracking Model for Liquid Mercury Target Simulation target, simulation, experiment, injection 711
  • L. Lin, M.I. Radaideh, H. Tran, D.E. Winder
    ORNL, Oak Ridge, Tennessee, USA
  Funding: This project was funded by the U.S. DOE under grant DE-SC0009915.
High intensity proton pulses strike the Spallation Neutron Source (SNS)’s mercury target to provide bright neutron beams. These strikes deposit extensive energy into the mercury and its steel vessel. Prediction of the resultant loading on the target is difficult when helium gas is intentionally injected into the mercury to reduce the loading and to mitigate the pitting damage on the vessel. A 2-phase material model that incorporates the Rayleigh-Plesset (R-P) model is expected to address this complex multi-physics dynamics problem by including the bubble dynamics in the liquid mercury. We present a study comparing the measured target strains in the SNS target station with the simulation results of the solid mechanics simulation framework. We investigate a wide range of various physical model parameters, including the number of bubble families, bubble size distribution, viscosity, surface tension, etc. to understand their impact on simulation accuracy. Our initial findings reveal that using 8-10 bubble families in the model renders a simulation strain envelope that covers the experimental ones. Further optimization studies are planned to predict the strain response more accurately.
poster icon Poster WEPA37 [1.985 MB]  
DOI • reference for this paper ※ doi:10.18429/JACoW-NAPAC2022-WEPA37  
About • Received ※ 27 July 2022 — Revised ※ 08 August 2022 — Accepted ※ 12 August 2022 — Issue date ※ 01 September 2022
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FRXD3 Measurements of the Five-Dimensional Phase Space Distribution of an Intense Ion Beam simulation, emittance, rfq, quadrupole 910
  • A.M. Hoover, A.V. Aleksandrov, S.M. Cousineau, K.J. Ruisard, A.P. Zhukov
    ORNL, Oak Ridge, Tennessee, USA
  Funding: Supported by the U.S. Department of Energy, Office of Science, Office of High Energy Physics; authored by UT- Battelle, LLC under Contract No. DE-AC05-00OR22725 with the U.S. Department of Energy.
No simulation of intense beam transport has accurately reproduced measurements at the level of beam halo. One potential explanation of this discrepancy is a lack of knowledge of the initial distribution of particles in six-dimensional (6D) phase space. A direct 6D measurement of an ion beam was recently performed at the Spallation Neutron Source (SNS) Beam Test Facility (BTF), revealing nonlinear transverse-longitudinal correlations in the beam core that affect downstream evolution. Unfortunately, direct 6D measurements are limited in resolution and dynamic range; here, we discuss the use of three slits and one screen to measure a 5D projection of the 6D phase space distribution, overcoming these limitations at the cost of one dimension. We examine the measured 5D distribution before and after transport through the BTF and compare to particle-in-cell simulations. We also discuss the possibility of reconstructing the 6D distribution from 5D and 4D projections.
slides icon Slides FRXD3 [4.078 MB]  
DOI • reference for this paper ※ doi:10.18429/JACoW-NAPAC2022-FRXD3  
About • Received ※ 03 August 2022 — Revised ※ 09 August 2022 — Accepted ※ 12 August 2022 — Issue date ※ 02 September 2022
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