Keyword: plasma
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MOYE5 In Situ Plasma Processing of Superconducting Cavities at JLab cavity, cryomodule, HOM, radiation 22
  • T. Powers, N.C. Brock, T.D. Ganey
    JLab, Newport News, Virginia, USA
  Jefferson Lab has an ongoing R&D program in plasma processing which is close to going into production processing in the CEBAF accelerator. Plasma processing is a common technique for removing hydrocarbons from surfaces, which increases the work function and reduces the secondary emission coefficient. Unlike helium processing which relies on ion bombardment of the field emitters, plasma processing uses free oxygen produced in the plasma to break down the hydrocarbons on the surface of the cavity. The initial focus of the effort was processing C100 cavities by injecting RF power into the HOM coupler ports. Results from processing cryomodule in the cryomodule test bunker as well as vertical test results will be presented. We plan to start processing cryomodules in the CEBAF tunnel within the next year. The goal will be to improve the operational gradients and the energy margin of the linacs. This work will describe the systems and methods used at JLAB for processing cavities using an argon oxygen gas mixture. Before and after plasma processing results will also be presented.  
slides icon Slides MOYE5 [2.679 MB]  
DOI • reference for this paper ※ doi:10.18429/JACoW-NAPAC2022-MOYE5  
About • Received ※ 01 August 2022 — Revised ※ 08 August 2022 — Accepted ※ 11 August 2022 — Issue date ※ 01 October 2022
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MOPA45 Vacuum Electron Devices in the 88-Inch Cyclotron cyclotron, ECR, electron, radiation 154
  • M. Kireeff Covo, J.Y. Benitez, P. Bloemhard, J.P. Garcia, B. Ninemire, L. Phair, D.S. Todd, D.Z. Xie
    LBNL, Berkeley, California, USA
  Funding: This work was supported by the U.S. Department of Energy, Office of Science, Office of Nuclear Physics under Contract No. DE-AC02-05CH11231
The 88-Inch Cyclotron at Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory is a sector-focused cyclotron that has light- and heavy-ion capabilities and supports a local research program in Nuclear Science and is the home of the Berkeley Accelerator Space Effects Facility, which studies effects of radiation on microelectronics, optics, materials, and cells. The cyclotron utilizes several vacuum electron devices (VEDs) in different systems, mainly to convey plasma heating, high power RF generation, and high-voltage and current DC power generation. VEDs have been proven reliable, robust, and radiation resistant. They also have wide range, good response against transients, and stable operation with load mismatch during system tuning, instabilities, or breakdowns. The paper will describe applications of these devices in the 88-Inch Cyclotron
poster icon Poster MOPA45 [1.434 MB]  
DOI • reference for this paper ※ doi:10.18429/JACoW-NAPAC2022-MOPA45  
About • Received ※ 02 August 2022 — Revised ※ 08 August 2022 — Accepted ※ 11 August 2022 — Issue date ※ 12 September 2022
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MOPA59 Prediction of Gaseous Breakdown for Plasma Cleaning of RF Cavities simulation, cavity, electron, electronics 174
  • S.A. Ahmed
    Ansys, Inc., Canonsburg, USA
  The quest for a high accelerating gradient in superconducting radio frequency cavity attracted scientists to adopt the plasma cleaning technology. Generating an efficient plasma inside a complex cavity structure for a desired frequency, gas types, and pressure for a given temperature is a challenge. The onset of discharge can be obtained from the well-known Paschen curve. Setting up an experiment is expensive and time-consuming, which may lead to a significant delay in the project. A high-fidelity computer simulation, modeling an arbitrary geometry and tracking the Paschen curve in a complex electromagnetic environment is therefore necessary. Ansys HFSS through its Finite Element Mesh (FEM) for the full-wave EM simulations combined with the electron impact ionization of gases enables the successful prediction of plasma breakdown for an arbitrary configuration for a wide frequency band and variety of gases. A comprehensive study will be demonstrated at the conference.
The author like to thank Robert Chao for the valuable discussions and his efforts in developing this capability in the Ansys Electronics Desktop.
DOI • reference for this paper ※ doi:10.18429/JACoW-NAPAC2022-MOPA59  
About • Received ※ 01 August 2022 — Revised ※ 03 August 2022 — Accepted ※ 06 August 2022 — Issue date ※ 19 August 2022
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MOPA62 High Quality Conformal Coatings on Accelerator Components via Novel Radial Magnetron with High-Power Impulse Magnetron Sputtering GUI, niobium, target, SRF 182
  • W.M. Huber, I. Haehnlein, T.J. Houlahan, B.E. Jurczyk, A.S. Morrice, R.A. Stubbers
    Starfire Industries LLC, Champaign, USA
  Funding: This material is based upon work supported by the U.S. Department of Energy under Award Numbers DE-SC0019784 and DE-SC0020481.
In this work, we present two configurations of a novel radial magnetron design that are suitable for coating the complex inner surfaces of a variety of modern particle accelerator components. These devices have been used in conjunction with high-power impulse magnetron sputtering (HiPIMS) to deposit copper and niobium films onto the inner surfaces of bellows assemblies, waveguides, and SRF cavities. These films, with thicknesses of up to 3 µm and 40 µm for niobium and copper, respectively, have been shown to be conformal, adherent, and conductive. In the case of copper, the post-bake RRR values of the resulting films are well within the range specified for electroplating of the LCLS-II bellows and CEBAF waveguide assemblies. In addition to requiring no chemical processing beyond a detergent rinse and solvent degrease, this magnetron design exhibits over 80% target material utilization. Further, in the case of niobium, an enhancement in RRR over that of the bulk (target) material has been observed.
DOI • reference for this paper ※ doi:10.18429/JACoW-NAPAC2022-MOPA62  
About • Received ※ 02 August 2022 — Revised ※ 05 August 2022 — Accepted ※ 09 August 2022 — Issue date ※ 21 August 2022
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MOPA91 Plasma Processing of Superconducting Quarter-Wave Resonators Using a Higher-Order Mode cavity, SRF, cryomodule, HOM 267
  • W. Hartung, W. Chang, K. Elliott, S.H. Kim, T. Konomi, J.T. Popielarski, K. Saito, T. Xu
    FRIB, East Lansing, Michigan, USA
  The Facility for Rare Isotope Beams (FRIB) is a superconducting ion linac with acceleration provided by 104 quarter-wave resonators (QWRs) and 220 half-wave resonators (HWRs); FRIB user operations began in May 2022. Plasma cleaning is being developed as a method to mitigate possible future degradation of QWR or HWR performance: in-situ plasma cleaning represents an alternative to removal and disassembly of cryomodules for refurbishment of each cavity via repeat etching and rinsing. Initial measurements were done on a QWR and an HWR with room-temperature-matched input couplers to drive the plasma via the fundamental mode. Subsequent plasma cleaning tests were done on two additional FRIB QWRs using the fundamental power coupler (FPC) to drive the plasma. When using the FPC, a higher-order mode (HOM) at 5 times the accelerating mode frequency was used to drive the plasma. Use of the HOM allowed for less mismatch at the FPC and hence lower field in the coupler relative to the cavity. A neon-oxygen gas mixture was used for plasma generation. Before and after cold tests showed a significant reduction in field emission X-rays after plasma cleaning. Results will be presented.  
DOI • reference for this paper ※ doi:10.18429/JACoW-NAPAC2022-MOPA91  
About • Received ※ 12 August 2022 — Revised ※ 16 August 2022 — Accepted ※ 25 August 2022 — Issue date ※ 16 September 2022
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TUXD4 Analysis Methods for Electron Radiography Based on Laser-Plasma Accelerators laser, electron, target, experiment 274
  • G.M. Bruhaug, G.W. Collins, H.G. Rinderknecht, J.R. Rygg, J.L. Shaw, M.S. Wei
    LLE, Rochester, New York, USA
  • M.S. Freeman, F.E. Merrill, L.P. Neukirch, C. Wilde
    LANL, Los Alamos, New Mexico, USA
  Funding: DOE National Nuclear Security Administration under Award Number DE-NA0003856 DOE under Awards DE-SC00215057 University of Rochester New York State Energy Research and Development Authority
Analysis methods are presented for determining the res-olution of both contact and projected electron radiography based on a laser-plasma accelerator. A means to determine the field strength of the electric/magnetic fields generated when a laser is incident on an object of interest is also outlined. Broad radiography results are reported and future plans for the diagnostic technique are outlined.
slides icon Slides TUXD4 [12.157 MB]  
DOI • reference for this paper ※ doi:10.18429/JACoW-NAPAC2022-TUXD4  
About • Received ※ 02 August 2022 — Revised ※ 04 August 2022 — Accepted ※ 06 August 2022 — Issue date ※ 03 September 2022
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TUYE2 Next Generation Computational Tools for the Modeling and Design of Particle Accelerators at Exascale simulation, GPU, software, space-charge 302
  • A. Huebl, R. Lehé, C.E. Mitchell, J. Qiang, R.D. Ryne, R.T. Sandberg, J.-L. Vay
    LBNL, Berkeley, USA
  Funding: Work supported by the Exascale Computing Project (17-SC-20-SC), a collaborative effort of the U.S. DOE SC and the NNSA, resources of NERSC, and by LBNL LDRD under DOE Contract DE-AC02-05CH11231.
Particle accelerators are among the largest, most complex devices. To meet the challenges of increasing energy, intensity, accuracy, compactness, complexity and efficiency, increasingly sophisticated computational tools are required for their design and optimization. It is key that contemporary software take advantage of the latest advances in computer hardware and scientific software engineering practices, delivering speed, reproducibility and feature composability for the aforementioned challenges. A new open source software stack is being developed at the heart of the Beam pLasma Accelerator Simulation Toolkit (BLAST) by LBNL and collaborators, providing new particle-in-cell modeling codes capable of exploiting the power of GPUs on Exascale supercomputers. Combined with advanced numerical techniques, such as mesh-refinement, and intrinsic support for machine learning, these codes are primed to provide ultrafast to ultraprecise modeling for future accelerator design and operations.
[1] J.-L. Vay, A. Huebl, et al, Phys. Plasmas 28, 023105 (2021)
[2] J.-L. Vay, A. Huebl, et al, J. Instr. 16, T10003 (2021)
[3] A. Myers, et al (incl. A. Huebl), Parallel Comput. 108, 102833 (2021)
slides icon Slides TUYE2 [9.399 MB]  
DOI • reference for this paper ※ doi:10.18429/JACoW-NAPAC2022-TUYE2  
About • Received ※ 13 July 2022 — Revised ※ 02 August 2022 — Accepted ※ 08 August 2022 — Issue date ※ 11 August 2022
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TUZE4 Particle-in-Cell Simulations of High Current Density Electron Beams in the Scorpius Linear Induction Accelerator simulation, electron, emittance, induction 339
  • S.E. Clark, Y.-J. Chen, J. Ellsworth, A.T. Fetterman, C.N. Melton, W.D. Stem
    LLNL, Livermore, USA
  Funding: This work was performed under the auspices of the U.S. Department of Energy by Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory under Contract DE-AC52-07NA27344.
Particle-in-cell (PIC) simulations of a high current density (I > 1 kA), and highly relativistic electron beam (E ~ 2-20 MeV) in the Scorpius Linear Induction Accelerator (LIA) are presented. The simulation set consists of a 3D electrostatic/magnetostatic simulation coupled to a 2D XY slice solver that propagates the beam through the proposed accelerator lattice for Scorpius, a next-generation flash X-ray radiography source. These simulations focus on the growth of azimuthal modes in the beam (e.g. Diocotron instability) that arise when physical ring distributions manifest in the beam either due to electron optics or solenoidal focusing and transport. The saturation mechanism appears to lead to the generation of halo particles and conversion down to lower mode numbers as the width of the ring distribution increases. The mode growth and saturation can contribute to the generation of hot spots on the target as well possible azimuthal asymmetries in the radiograph. Simulation results are compared to linear theory and tuning parameters are investigated to mitigate the growth of azimuthal modes in the Scorpius electron beam.
* LLNL-ABS-830595, Approved for public release. Distribution Unlimited.
slides icon Slides TUZE4 [4.305 MB]  
DOI • reference for this paper ※ doi:10.18429/JACoW-NAPAC2022-TUZE4  
About • Received ※ 02 August 2022 — Revised ※ 05 August 2022 — Accepted ※ 11 August 2022 — Issue date ※ 21 September 2022
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TUPA05 An H Injector for the ESS Storage Ring cathode, ion-source, rfq, operation 357
  • V.G. Dudnikov, M.A. Cummings, M. Popovic
    Muons, Inc, Illinois, USA
  H charge exchange (stripping) injection into the European Spallation neutron Source (ESS) Storage Ring requires a 90 mA H ion source that delivers 2.9 ms pulses at 14 Hz repetition rate (duty factor ~4%) that can be extended to 28 Hz (df 8%). This can be achieved with a magnetron surface plasma H source (SPS) with active cathode and anode cooling. The Brookhaven National Laboratory (BNL) magnetron SPS can produce an H beam current of 100 mA with about 2 kW discharge power and can operate up to 0.7 % duty factor (average power 14 W) without active cooling. We describe how active cathode and anode cooling can be applied to the BNL source to increase the average discharge power up to 140 W (df 8%) to satisfy the needs of the ESS. We also describe the use of a short electrostatic LEBT as is used at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory Spallation Neutron Source to improve the beam delivery to the RFQ.  
DOI • reference for this paper ※ doi:10.18429/JACoW-NAPAC2022-TUPA05  
About • Received ※ 02 August 2022 — Revised ※ 08 August 2022 — Accepted ※ 10 August 2022 — Issue date ※ 04 September 2022
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TUPA74 Numerical Calculations of Wave Generation from a Bunched Electron Beam in Space electron, radiation, simulation, experiment 502
  • H. Xu, G.L. Delzanno, L.D. Duffy, Q.R. Marksteiner, G.D. Reeves
    LANL, Los Alamos, New Mexico, USA
  Funding: This project was supported by the Laboratory Directed Research and Development program of Los Alamos National Laboratory.
We present our numerical approach and preliminary results of the calculations of whistler and X-mode wave generation by a bunched electron beam in space. The artificial generation of whistler and X-mode plasma waves in space is among the candidate techniques to accomplish the radiation belt remediation (RBR), in an effort to precipitate energetic electrons towards the atmosphere to reduce their threat to low-Earth orbit satellites. Free-space propagation of an electron pulse in a constant background magnetic field was simulated with the CST particle-in-cell (PIC) solver, with the temporal evolution of the beam recorded. The SpectralPlasmaSolver (SPS) was then modified to use the recorded electron pulse propagation to calculate the real-time plasma waves generated by the beam. SPS simulation results of the wave generation for the upcoming Beam-PIE experiment as well as an ideal bunched electron beam are shown.
poster icon Poster TUPA74 [0.963 MB]  
DOI • reference for this paper ※ doi:10.18429/JACoW-NAPAC2022-TUPA74  
About • Received ※ 18 July 2022 — Revised ※ 02 August 2022 — Accepted ※ 07 August 2022 — Issue date ※ 08 August 2022
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TUPA84 Reconstructing Beam Parameters from Betatron Radiation Through Machine Learning and Maximum Likelihood Estimation radiation, betatron, simulation, diagnostics 527
  • S. Zhang, N. Majernik, B. Naranjo, J.B. Rosenzweig, M. Yadav
    UCLA, Los Angeles, California, USA
  • Ö. Apsimon, C.P. Welsch, M. Yadav
    The University of Liverpool, Liverpool, United Kingdom
  Funding: US Department of Energy, Division of High Energy Physics, under Contract No. DE-SC0009914.
The dense drive beam used in plasma wakefield acceleration generates a linear focusing force that causes electrons inside the witness beam to undergo betatron oscillations, giving rise to betatron radiation. Because information about the properties of the beam is encoded in the betatron radiation, measurements of the radiation such as those recorded by the UCLA-built Compton spectrometer can be used to reconstruct beam parameters. Two possible methods of extracting information about beam parameters from measurements of radiation are machine learning (ML), which is increasingly being implemented for different fields of beam diagnostics, and a statistical technique known as maximum likelihood estimation (MLE). We assess the ability of both machine learning and MLE methods to accurately extract beam parameters from measurements of betatron radiation.
DOI • reference for this paper ※ doi:10.18429/JACoW-NAPAC2022-TUPA84  
About • Received ※ 02 August 2022 — Revised ※ 07 August 2022 — Accepted ※ 10 August 2022 — Issue date ※ 05 October 2022
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TUPA85 First Results from a Multileaf Collimator and Emittance Exchange Beamline wakefield, acceleration, laser, vacuum 531
  • N. Majernik, G. Andonian, C.D. Lorch, W.J. Lynn, J.B. Rosenzweig
    UCLA, Los Angeles, California, USA
  • D.S. Doran, S.Y. Kim, P. Piot, J.G. Power, C. Whiteford, E.E. Wisniewski
    ANL, Lemont, Illinois, USA
  Funding: Department of Energy DE-SC0017648 and National Science Foundation PHY-1549132.
By shaping the transverse profile of a particle beam prior to an emittance exchange (EEX) beamline, drive and witness beams with variable current profiles and bunch spacing can be produced. Presently at AWA, this transverse shaping is accomplished with individually laser-cut tungsten masks, making the refinement of beam profiles a slow process. In contrast, a multileaf collimator (MLC) is a device that can selectively mask the profile of a beam using many independently actuated leaves. Since an MLC permits real-time adjustment of the beam shape, its use as a beam mask would permit much faster optimization in a manner highly synergistic with machine learning. Beam dynamics simulations have shown that such an approach is functionally equivalent to that offered by the laser cut masks. In this work, the construction and first results from a 40-leaf, UHV compatible MLC are discussed.
DOI • reference for this paper ※ doi:10.18429/JACoW-NAPAC2022-TUPA85  
About • Received ※ 16 July 2022 — Revised ※ 02 August 2022 — Accepted ※ 11 August 2022 — Issue date ※ 12 August 2022
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TUPA87 Simulations for the Space Plasma Experiments at the SAMURAI Lab electron, simulation, experiment, radiation 539
  • P. Manwani, H.S. Ancelin, A. Fukasawa, G.E. Lawler, N. Majernik, B. Naranjo, J.B. Rosenzweig, Y. Sakai, O. Williams
    UCLA, Los Angeles, California, USA
  • G. Andonian
    RadiaBeam, Santa Monica, California, USA
  Funding: This work was performed with support of the US Department of Energy under Contract No. DE-SC0017648 and DESC0009914, and the DARPA GRIT Contract 20204571
Plasma wakefield acceleration using the electron linear accelerator test facility, SAMURAI, can be used to study the Jovian electron spectrum due to the high energy spread of the beam after the plasma interaction. The SAMURAI RF facility which is currently being constructed and commissioned at UCLA, is is capable of producing beams with 10 MeV energy, 2 nC charge, and 200 fsec bunch lengths with a 4 um emittance. Particle-in-cell (PIC) simulations are used to study the beam spectrum that would be generated from plasma interaction. Experimental methods and diagnostics are discussed in this paper.
DOI • reference for this paper ※ doi:10.18429/JACoW-NAPAC2022-TUPA87  
About • Received ※ 04 August 2022 — Revised ※ 08 August 2022 — Accepted ※ 10 August 2022 — Issue date ※ 06 September 2022
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WEYD3 Positron Acceleration in Linear, Moderately Non-Linear and Non-Linear Plasma Wakefields positron, collider, emittance, electron 560
  • G.J. Cao, E. Adli
    University of Oslo, Oslo, Norway
  • S. Corde
    LOA, Palaiseau, France
  • S.J. Gessner
    SLAC, Menlo Park, California, USA
  Accelerating particles to high energies with high efficiency and beam quality is crucial in developing accelerator technologies. The plasma acceleration technique, providing unprecedented high gradients, is considered as a promising future technology. While important progress has been made in plasma-based electron acceleration in recent years, identifying a reliable acceleration technique for the positron counterpart would pave the way to a linear e+e collider for high-energy physics applications. In this work, we show further studies of positron beam quality in moderately non-linear (MNL)* plasma wakefields. With a positron bunch of initial energy 1 GeV, emittance preservation can be achieved in optimised scenarios at 2.38 mm’mrad. In parallel, asymmetric beam collisions at the interaction point (IP) are studied to evaluate the current luminosity reach and provide insight to improvements required for positron acceleration in plasma. It is necessary to scale down the emittance of the positron bunch. In the MNL regime, a positron beam with 238 ’m’mrad level emittance implies compromise in charge or necessity for ultra-short bunches.
* "Efficiency and beam quality for positron acceleration in loaded plasma wakefields",C. S. Hue, G. J. Cao, Phys. Rev. Research 3, 043063
slides icon Slides WEYD3 [3.635 MB]  
DOI • reference for this paper ※ doi:10.18429/JACoW-NAPAC2022-WEYD3  
About • Received ※ 01 August 2022 — Revised ※ 09 August 2022 — Accepted ※ 10 August 2022 — Issue date ※ 24 August 2022
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WEPA30 Nb3Sn Coating of a 2.6 GHz SRF Cavity by Sputter Deposition Technique cavity, SRF, site, target 691
  • M.S. Shakel, W. Cao, H. Elsayed-Ali, Md.N. Sayeed
    ODU, Norfolk, Virginia, USA
  • G.V. Eremeev
    Fermilab, Batavia, Illinois, USA
  • U. Pudasaini, A-M. Valente-Feliciano
    JLab, Newport News, Virginia, USA
  Funding: Supported by DOE, Office of Accelerator R&D and Production, Contact No. DE-SC0022284, with partial support by DOE, Office of Nuclear Physics DE-AC05-06OR23177, Early Career Award to G. Eremeev.
Nb3Sn is of interest as a coating for SRF cavities due to its higher transition temperature Tc ~18.3 K and superheating field Hsh ~400 mT, both are twice that of Nb. Nb3Sn coated cavities can achieve high-quality factors at 4 K and can replace the bulk Nb cavities operated at 2 K. A cylindrical magnetron sputtering system was built, commissioned, and used to deposit Nb3Sn on the inner surface of a 2.6 GHz single-cell Nb cavity. With two identical cylindrical magnetrons, this system can coat a cavity with high symmetry and uniform thickness. Using Nb-Sn multilayer sequential sputtering followed by annealing at 950°C for 3 hours, polycrystalline Nb3Sn films were first deposited at the equivalent positions of the cavity’s beam tubes and equator. The film’s composition, crystal structure, and morphology were characterized by energy dispersive spectroscopy, X-ray diffraction, and atomic force microscopy. The Tc of the films was measured by the four-point probe method and was 17.61 to 17.76 K. Based on these studies, ~1.2 micron thick Nb3Sn was deposited inside a 2.6 GHz Nb cavity. We will discuss first results from samples and cavity coatings, and the status of the coating system.
poster icon Poster WEPA30 [1.769 MB]  
DOI • reference for this paper ※ doi:10.18429/JACoW-NAPAC2022-WEPA30  
About • Received ※ 03 August 2022 — Revised ※ 08 August 2022 — Accepted ※ 11 August 2022 — Issue date ※ 22 August 2022
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