08: Accelerator Applications
Paper Title Page
MOODE1 Applications of Particle Accelerators 1
  • M. Uesaka
    JAEC, Tokyo, Japan
  Applications of particle accelerators amid global policies of carbon neutrality and economic security. are reviewed. Downsizing of high energy large scaled accelerators by advanced technologies enables a variety of medical and industrial uses. One of the highlights is upgrade of sustainable supply chain of medical radioisotopes by the best mix of research reactors and accelerators. 99Mo/99mTc for diagnosis are going to be produced by low enriched U reactor and proton-cyclotron, electron rhodotron and electron linac. Moreover, the theranostics by 177Lu (beta) and 211At/225Ac (alpha) are going to be realized. Proton-cyclotron and electron linac are expected to produce them soon. This new affordable radiation therapy should play an important role in the IAEA project of Rays of Hopes. Next, proof-of-principle trails of on-site bridge inspection of the portable X-band (9.3 GHz) electron linac X-ray/neutron sources are under way. The technical guideline for the practical inspection is to be formed in a couple of years. Ultimate micro-accelerator for microbeam applications is dielectric laser accelerator, such as ACHIP project. Updated projects and results are also introduced.  
slides icon Slides MOODE1 [3.065 MB]  
DOI • reference for this paper ※ doi:10.18429/JACoW-NAPAC2022-MOODE1  
About • Received ※ 02 August 2022 — Revised ※ 09 August 2022 — Accepted ※ 10 August 2022 — Issue date ※ 11 August 2022
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Building a Global, Collaborative Accelerator Economy: Summary of the IPAC 2022 Industrial Session  
  • R. Geometrante
    Kyma S.p.A., Trieste, Italy
  The 13th International Particular Accelerator Conference 2022 (IPAC22) was held this June as an in-person event in Bangkok, Thailand. What happened, and what’s next? Great emphasis was given to its industrial session. Particle accelerators are at a crucial moment: innovation, ideas and know-how have to be shared between individuals both in lab-based- and university-based-STE (Science Technology and Engineering) and industry. Bridges have to be built to improve high technology products and to identify new products and markets. The Industrial Session discussed about novel ideas and concrete actions on how best to implement and apply impactful strategies that would help with integration and co-innovation between industry, laboratories and universities, with the clear and shared aim: building a global, collaborative accelerator economy.  
slides icon Slides MOODE3 [0.565 MB]  
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MOPA02 Activation of the IBA Proteus One Proton Therapy Beamline Using BDSIM and FISPACT-II 59
  • E. Ramoisiaux, E. Gnacadja, C. Hernalsteens, N. Pauly, R. Tesse, M. Vanwelde
    ULB, Bruxelles, Belgium
  • C. Hernalsteens
    CERN, Meyrin, Switzerland
  Cyclotron-based proton therapy systems generate large fluxes of secondary particles due to the beam interactions with the beamline elements, with the energy degrader being the dominant source. Compact systems exacerbate these challenges for concrete shielding and beamline element activation. Our implementation of the Rigorous Two-Step method uses Beam Delivery Simulation (BDSIM), a Geant4-based particle tracking code, for primary and secondary particles transport and fluence scoring, and FISPACT-II for time-dependent nuclear inventory and solving the rate equations. This approach is applied to the Ion Beam Applications (IBA) Proteus®ONE (P1) system, for which a complete model has been built, validated, and used for shielding activation simulations. We detail the first simulations of the activation on quadrupole magnets in high-fluence locations downstream of the degrader. Results show the evolution of the long-lived nuclide concentrations for short and long timescales throughout the facility lifetime for a typical operation scenario.  
poster icon Poster MOPA02 [0.553 MB]  
DOI • reference for this paper ※ doi:10.18429/JACoW-NAPAC2022-MOPA02  
About • Received ※ 02 August 2022 — Revised ※ 09 August 2022 — Accepted ※ 19 August 2022 — Issue date ※ 21 September 2022
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Radiation Concerns and Mitigation Schemes for Accelerator Facility Components  
  • F. Pellemoine
    Fermilab, Batavia, Illinois, USA
  Major accelerator facilities are limited in beam power not by their accelerators but by the beam intercepting device survivability. In some cases, the target must endure high power pulsed beam, leading to high cycle thermal shocks. Most of the time, the increased beam power creates significant challenges such as corrosion and radiation damage that causes harmful effects on the material and degrades their mechanical and thermal properties during irradiation. This can eventually lead to the failure of the material and drastically reduced lifetime of targets and beam intercepting devices. In order to operate reliable beam-intercepting devices in the framework of energy and intensity increase projects of the future, it is essential to develop a strong R&D program and have synergy with various expertise. Based on those strong R&D programs, several ways exist to mitigate radiation damage in material in order to increase lifetime of targets in accelerators. After presenting the high-power target challenges facing next generation accelerators with few examples of international facilities, I will provide few ways to mitigate radiation damages in target material.  
slides icon Slides TUXD1 [6.702 MB]  
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An E-Beam Irradiation Beamline at Jefferson Lab for 1,4-Dioxane and Per- and Polyfluoroalkyl Substances Remediation in Wastewater  
  • X. Li, H. Baumgart
    ODU, Norfolk, Virginia, USA
  • G. Ciovati, M.D. McCaughan, M. Poelker, S. Wang
    JLab, Newport News, Virginia, USA
  • F.E. Hannon
    Phase Space Tech, Bjärred, Sweden
  Funding: Jefferson Lab Laboratory Directed Research and Development Program.
The Upgraded Injector Test Facility (UITF) at Jefferson Lab, providing a beam energy up to 10 MeV, is suitable for wastewater remediation research. To investigate the degradation of 1,4-dioxane and per- and polyfluoroalkyl substances (PFAS), widespread in wastewater and potential to be regulated in near future [1], a beamline for electron-beam irradiation has been designed, installed and successfully commissioned at the UITF. A solenoid with a peak axial magnetic field of up to 0.28 T and a raster were used to obtain a Gaussian beam profile with a transverse standard deviation of ~15 mm. It was applied to irradiate 1,4-dioxane sample filled in the target cell that was designed to let the entire sample receive significant irradiation doses. The dose distribution and absorbed dose, few studied in the existing publications, are necessary measures for the degradation mechanism investigation and have been innovatively achieved in this work using simulations, which were calibrated with opti-chromic dosimeter rods directly exposed to the electron beam. This approach provides an important way for investigating the environmental remediation impact of electron-beam irradiation.
[1] U.S. EPA. Announcement of preliminary regulatory determinations for
contaminants on the fourth drinking water contaminant candidate list. Federal register, 85(47):14098 - 14142, 2020.2.
slides icon Slides TUXD2 [2.988 MB]  
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TUXD3 Production Pathways for Medically Interesting Isotopes 271
  • L. Rosado Del Rio
    University of Puerto Rico, Rio Piedras Campus, San Juan, Puerto Rico
  • L.F. Dabill
    Coe College, Cedar Rapids, Iowa, USA
  • A. Hutton
    JLab, Newport News, Virginia, USA
  Funding: LR was supported by the U.S. NSF REU at Old Dominion University Grant No. 1950141. AH was supported by the U.S. DOE, Office of Science, Office of Nuclear Physics under Contract No. DE-AC05-06OR23177
Radioisotopes are commonly used in nuclear medicine for treating cancer and new, more effective treatment options are always desired. As a result, there is a national need for new radioisotopes and ways to produce them. A computer program was created that evaluates the daughters for all known reactions of projectiles (gamma rays, protons or neutrons) with every stable target isotope by comparing the cross-sections for each reaction at a desired energy, and outputs a list of the potential daughter isotopes that are most likely to be generated. The program then evaluates the decay chains of these daughters to provide a list of the possible decay chains that contain the radioisotope of interest. By knowing the daughter production and decay chain for each isotope, it is possible to go from the desired radioisotope to the stable isotope that can be used as a target for its production. This project would facilitate the search for new pathways to creating useful theranostic isotopes.
slides icon Slides TUXD3 [0.591 MB]  
DOI • reference for this paper ※ doi:10.18429/JACoW-NAPAC2022-TUXD3  
About • Received ※ 17 July 2022 — Revised ※ 01 August 2022 — Accepted ※ 12 August 2022 — Issue date ※ 25 August 2022
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TUXD4 Analysis Methods for Electron Radiography Based on Laser-Plasma Accelerators 274
  • G.M. Bruhaug, G.W. Collins, H.G. Rinderknecht, J.R. Rygg, J.L. Shaw, M.S. Wei
    LLE, Rochester, New York, USA
  • M.S. Freeman, F.E. Merrill, L.P. Neukirch, C. Wilde
    LANL, Los Alamos, New Mexico, USA
  Funding: DOE National Nuclear Security Administration under Award Number DE-NA0003856 DOE under Awards DE-SC00215057 University of Rochester New York State Energy Research and Development Authority
Analysis methods are presented for determining the res-olution of both contact and projected electron radiography based on a laser-plasma accelerator. A means to determine the field strength of the electric/magnetic fields generated when a laser is incident on an object of interest is also outlined. Broad radiography results are reported and future plans for the diagnostic technique are outlined.
slides icon Slides TUXD4 [12.157 MB]  
DOI • reference for this paper ※ doi:10.18429/JACoW-NAPAC2022-TUXD4  
About • Received ※ 02 August 2022 — Revised ※ 04 August 2022 — Accepted ※ 06 August 2022 — Issue date ※ 03 September 2022
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Development of Achromatic Imaging Capabilities for pRad at LANSCE  
  • M. Schanz, J.C. Allison, M.S. Freeman, F.G. Mariam, C.L. Morris, L.P. Neukirch, Z. Tang
    LANL, Los Alamos, New Mexico, USA
  • E.V. Valetov
    MSU, East Lansing, Michigan, USA
  Funding: The research presented is supported by the Laboratory Directed Research and Development program of Los Alamos National Laboratory under project number 20220343ER.
Proton radiography is a powerful diagnostics technique that is capable of resolving ultra-fast processes on the ns scale in dense matter with micrometer spatial resolution. This unique performance is realized by the use of a chromatic imaging system, which consists of four quadrupole lenses [1]. Chromatic imaging systems have a mono-energetic focal length. That means, if a target with areas of different energy losses is to be investigated, it is only possible to focus on one proton energy leaving other areas of interest blurred. A simple method of focusing multiple energies at once and thus increasing the depth-of-field is the use of multiple detector stations along the beam axis. Proton images captured at downstream detector positions can be combined into a single image using a method called ’focus stacking’. A complete cancellation of the position- and energy dependent 2nd order chromatic aberrations that mostly affect the current image quality of pRad [2] is only possible by using an achromatic imaging system. Following the proposals in early design studies at LANSCE [3] a new prototype achromatic system is currently being developed for a 25 MeV S-band electron accelerator.
[1] N. King, et al., Nucl. Instr. and Meth. in Phys. Res. A, Vol 424, 1999
[2] F.E. Merrill, Rev. of Acc. Sci. and Tech. Vol 8, 2015
[3] B. Blind, A.J. Jason, Proc. of PAC, 2005
slides icon Slides TUXD5 [4.745 MB]  
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TUXD6 Dual Radiofrequency Cavity Based Monochromatization for High Resolution Electron Energy Loss Spectroscopy 278
  • A.V. Kulkarni, P.E. Denham, A. Kogar, P. Musumeci
    UCLA, Los Angeles, USA
  Reducing the energy spread of electron beams can enable breakthrough advances in electron energy loss spectroscopic investigations of solid state samples where characteristic excitations typically have energy scales on the order of meV. In conventional electron sources the energy spread is limited by the emission process and typically on the order of a fraction of an eV. State-of-the-art energy resolution can only be achieved after significant losses in the monochromatization process. Here we propose to take advantage of photoemission from ultrashort laser pulses (~40 fs) so that after a longitudinal phase space manipulation that trades pulse duration for energy spread, the energy spread can be reduced by more than one order of magnitude. The scheme uses two RF cavities to accomplish this goal and can be implemented on a relatively short (~ 1m) beamline. Analytical predictions and results of 3D self consistent beam dynamics simulations are presented to support the findings.  
slides icon Slides TUXD6 [1.461 MB]  
DOI • reference for this paper ※ doi:10.18429/JACoW-NAPAC2022-TUXD6  
About • Received ※ 03 August 2022 — Revised ※ 08 August 2022 — Accepted ※ 11 August 2022 — Issue date ※ 18 August 2022
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Sustainability Brown Bag Luncheon: Let’s Get the Conversation Started  
  • M. Uesaka
    JAEC, Tokyo, Japan
  • S.V. Milton
    Element Aero, Chicago, USA
  This lunch’s purpose is to continue the discussion of how accelerators can be more green as well as how accelerators and peripheral technologies can help with sustainability at all levels as well as with clean energy. After a short opening conversation between the two discussion leaders to provoke ideas, they will guide additional dialogue generated through audience engagement to extend through the duration of the conference and beyond.  
slides icon Slides TUAE1 [2.856 MB]  
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TUPA09 Designing Accelerator-Driven Experiments for Accelerator-Driven Reactors 360
  • M.A. Cummings, R.J. Abrams, R.P. Johnson, J.D. Lobo, T.J. Roberts
    Muons, Inc, Illinois, USA
  Muons, Inc., with its collaborators, to the best of our knowledge is the only one of the several reactor concept companies in the US that is concentrating on an accelerator-driven subcritical high-power reactor design. The major objection to such systems has been that short interruptions of beam of even a few seconds would turn off fission power long enough to induce temperature-gradient shocks and subsequent fatigue of solid fuel elements. Mu*STAR solves this problem by using a molten-salt fuel. Mu*STAR is a reactor design that not only includes a particle accelerator as an integral part, but has several innovative features that make it a compelling solution to many problems. We note that the ADSR concepts being pursued by the Chinese Academy of Science (ADANES) and the Belgians (MYRRHA) are based on traditional solid fuel elements and require exceptional stability from their accelerator.  
DOI • reference for this paper ※ doi:10.18429/JACoW-NAPAC2022-TUPA09  
About • Received ※ 03 August 2022 — Revised ※ 05 August 2022 — Accepted ※ 08 August 2022 — Issue date ※ 29 September 2022
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TUPA30 Development of a Compact 2D Carbon Beam Scanner for Cancer Therapy 417
  • B. Mustapha, A. Barcikowski, J.A. Nolen
    ANL, Lemont, Illinois, USA
  • V.P. Derenchuk, P. Osucha
    ProNova Solutions, Knoxville, USA
  • N. Tsoupas
    BNL, Upton, New York, USA
  Funding: This work was supported by the U.S. Department of Energy, under Contract No. DE-AC02-06CH11357. This research was support through the DOE’s Accelerator Stewardship program.
A novel trapezoidal coil 2D carbon beam scanner has been designed, and a prototype has been successfully developed and tested. The field performance of the magnet has been characterized and it is in excellent agreement with the simulations. A better than 1% field uniformity in both planes has been achieved within the useful aperture of the magnet. This represents a significant improvement over the prior art of the elephant-ear scanner design. A comparison of the two designs and the results from the new trapezoidal-coil design will be presented and discussed. Higher power and online beam testing are planned in the near future.
DOI • reference for this paper ※ doi:10.18429/JACoW-NAPAC2022-TUPA30  
About • Received ※ 25 July 2022 — Revised ※ 14 August 2022 — Accepted ※ 15 August 2022 — Issue date ※ 25 August 2022
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TUPA74 Numerical Calculations of Wave Generation from a Bunched Electron Beam in Space 502
  • H. Xu, G.L. Delzanno, L.D. Duffy, Q.R. Marksteiner, G.D. Reeves
    LANL, Los Alamos, New Mexico, USA
  Funding: This project was supported by the Laboratory Directed Research and Development program of Los Alamos National Laboratory.
We present our numerical approach and preliminary results of the calculations of whistler and X-mode wave generation by a bunched electron beam in space. The artificial generation of whistler and X-mode plasma waves in space is among the candidate techniques to accomplish the radiation belt remediation (RBR), in an effort to precipitate energetic electrons towards the atmosphere to reduce their threat to low-Earth orbit satellites. Free-space propagation of an electron pulse in a constant background magnetic field was simulated with the CST particle-in-cell (PIC) solver, with the temporal evolution of the beam recorded. The SpectralPlasmaSolver (SPS) was then modified to use the recorded electron pulse propagation to calculate the real-time plasma waves generated by the beam. SPS simulation results of the wave generation for the upcoming Beam-PIE experiment as well as an ideal bunched electron beam are shown.
poster icon Poster TUPA74 [0.963 MB]  
DOI • reference for this paper ※ doi:10.18429/JACoW-NAPAC2022-TUPA74  
About • Received ※ 18 July 2022 — Revised ※ 02 August 2022 — Accepted ※ 07 August 2022 — Issue date ※ 08 August 2022
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Los Alamos National Laboratory: Beyond Manhattan  
  • A.B. Carr
    LANL, Los Alamos, New Mexico, USA
  Many know the story of the Manhattan Project, and the crucial role played by Oppenheimer’s Laboratory at Los Alamos in the design, construction and deployment of the world’s first nuclear weapons. But what happened to the Laboratory after the war? Why did it remain in existence, and how did it evolve over the years? Alan Carr will discuss how Los Alamos National Laboratory has changed through the decades, and conclude by giving a quick survey of the modern institution on the eve of its 80th anniversary.  
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Current Status of Developing an Ultrafast Electron Microscope  
  • X. Yang, T.V. Shaftan, V.V. Smaluk, Y. Zhu
    BNL, Upton, New York, USA
  • P. Musumeci
    UCLA, Los Angeles, California, USA
  • W. Wan
    ShanghaiTech University, Shanghai, People’s Republic of China
  Recent studies of ultrafast electron microscopy (UEM) techniques show the use of short bunches of relativistic electrons are promising for the development of a new instrument for imaging samples of various materials. Compared to conventional electron microscopes, the main advantage of UEMs with the electron energy of a few MeV is the possibility to study thick samples. We will discuss the progress of UEM design to date, the principal challenges on the way to a high resolution, and possible methods for their mitigation including the design of low-aberration magnetic optics, RF and mechanical subsystems with high stability, and precise collimation of electrons scattered in the samples.  
slides icon Slides WEZE1 [11.286 MB]  
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Ultrafast Electron Diffraction at Cornell Using Low Emittance Photocathodes  
  • J.M. Maxson
    Cornell University (CLASSE), Cornell Laboratory for Accelerator-Based Sciences and Education, Ithaca, New York, USA
  A new system for ultrafast electron diffraction has been commissioned at Cornell which uses alkali antimonides photocathode in a 200 keV DC gun. Utilizing a tunable wavelength ultrafast laser source, it is the first photogun to use near-photoemission-threshold drive laser wavelengths in operation, which provides for very low emittance initial conditions. Emittance is preserved in the space charge regime via emittance compensation in conjunction with multipole correction out to sextupole order. The end result is beam quality that provides the ability to study much smaller material samples (down to a few microns across) or to resolve fine features in diffraction space; these are demonstrated via proof of principle experiments.  
slides icon Slides WEZE2 [4.762 MB]  
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WEZE3 Compact, High-Power Superconducting Electron Linear Accelerators for MW Industrial Applications 604
  • J.C.T. Thangaraj, R. Dhuley
    Fermilab, Batavia, Illinois, USA
  Fermilab has developed a novel concept for an industrial electron linac using Nb3Sn coating technology and conduction cooling. We will show the range of multi-cavity linac designs targeted toward various applications. We will also discuss technology development status with results on conduction cooling of SRF cavities based on cryocoolers, which removes the need for liquid Helium, thus making SRF technology accessible to industrial applications. These conduction-cooled linacs can generate electron beam energies up to 10 MeV in continuous-wave operation and can reach higher power (>=1 MW) by combing several modules. Compact and light enough to mount on mobile platforms, our machine is anticipated to enable new in-situ environmental remediation applications such as waste-water treatment for urban areas, X-ray medical device sterilization, and innovative pavement applications. We also show cost-economics and key R&D areas that much be addressed for a practical machine.  
slides icon Slides WEZE3 [3.811 MB]  
DOI • reference for this paper ※ doi:10.18429/JACoW-NAPAC2022-WEZE3  
About • Received ※ 02 August 2022 — Revised ※ 12 August 2022 — Accepted ※ 13 August 2022 — Issue date ※ 30 August 2022
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WEZE4 First High-Gradient Results of UED/UEM SRF Gun at Cryogenic Temperatures 607
  • R.A. Kostin, C. Jing
    Euclid Beamlabs, Bolingbrook, USA
  • D.J. Bice, T.N. Khabiboulline, S. Posen
    Fermilab, Batavia, Illinois, USA
  Funding: The project is funded by DOE SBIR #DE-SC0018621
Benefiting from the rapid progress on RF photogun technologies in the past two decades, the development of MeV range ultrafast electron diffraction/microscopy (UED and UEM) has been identified as an enabling instrumentation. UEM or UED use low power electron beams with modest energies of a few MeV to study ultrafast phenomena in a variety of novel and exotic materials. SRF photoguns become a promising candidate to produce highly stable electrons for UEM/UED applications because of the ultrahigh shot-to-shot stability compared to room temperature RF photoguns. SRF technology was prohibitively expensive for industrial use until two recent advancements: Nb3Sn and conduction cooling. The use of Nb3Sn allows to operate SRF cavities at higher temperatures (4K) with low power dissipation which is within the reach of commercially available closed-cycle cryocoolers. Euclid is developing a continuous wave (CW), 1.5-cell, MeV-scale SRF conduction cooled photogun operating at 1.3 GHz. In this paper, we present first high gradient results of the gun conducted in liquid helium.
slides icon Slides WEZE4 [2.817 MB]  
DOI • reference for this paper ※ doi:10.18429/JACoW-NAPAC2022-WEZE4  
About • Received ※ 05 August 2022 — Revised ※ 07 August 2022 — Accepted ※ 11 August 2022 — Issue date ※ 29 September 2022
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WEZE5 Magnetic Flux Expulsion in Superconducting Radio-Frequency Niobium Cavities Made from Cold Worked Niobium 611
  • B.D. Khanal
    ODU, Norfolk, Virginia, USA
  • S. Balachandran, P.J. Lee
    NHMFL, Tallahassee, Florida, USA
  • S. Chetri
    ASC, Tallahassee, Florida, USA
  • P. Dhakal
    JLab, Newport News, Virginia, USA
  Trapped residual magnetic field during the cool down of superconducting radio frequency (SRF) cavities is one of the primary sources of RF residual losses leading to lower quality factor. Historically, SRF cavities have been fabricated from high purity fine grain niobium with grain size ~50 to 100 µm as well as large grain with grain size of the order of few centimeters. Non-uniform recrystallization of fine-grain Nb cavities after the post fabrication heat treatment leads to higher flux trapping during the cool down, and hence the lower quality factor. We fabricated two 1.3 GHz single cell cavities from cold-worked niobium from different vendors and processed along with cavities made from SRF grade Nb. The flux expulsion and flux trapping sensitivity were measured after successive heat treatments in the range 800 to 1000°C. The flux expulsion from cold-worked fine-grain Nb cavities improves after 800°C/3h heat treatments and it becomes similar to that of standard fine-grain Nb cavities when the heat treatment temperature is higher than 900°C.  
slides icon Slides WEZE5 [2.029 MB]  
DOI • reference for this paper ※ doi:10.18429/JACoW-NAPAC2022-WEZE5  
About • Received ※ 01 August 2022 — Revised ※ 07 August 2022 — Accepted ※ 11 August 2022 — Issue date ※ 31 August 2022
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Characterization of the Fields Inside the CO2-Laser-Driven Wakefield Accelerators Using Relativistic Electron Beams  
  • I. Petrushina
    SUNY SB, Stony Brook, New York, USA
  • M. Babzien, M.G. Fedurin, K. Kusche, M.A. Palmer, I. Pogorelsky, M.N. Polyanskiy
    BNL, Upton, New York, USA
  • M. Downer, R. Zgadzaj
    The University of Texas at Austin, Austin, Texas, USA
  • A.S. Gaikwad, V. Litvinenko, N. Vafaei-Najafabadi
    Stony Brook University, Stony Brook, USA
  • C. Joshi, W.B. Mori, C. Zhang
    UCLA, Los Angeles, California, USA
  • R. Kupfer
    LLNL, Livermore, USA
  • V. Samulyak
    SBU, Stony Brook, USA
  The CO2 laser at the Accelerator Test Facility of Brookhaven National Laboratory is a unique source generating 2-ps-long, multi-TW pulses in the mid-IR regime. This rapidly evolving system opens an opportunity for the generation of large bubbles in low-density plasmas (~1016 cm-3) that are ideal for acceleration of externally injected electron beams. A new generation of diagnostic tools is needed to characterize the fields inside such structures and to improve the means of external injection. In recent years, the electron beam probing technique has shown to be successful in direct visualization of the plasma wakefields. Here we present a new method utilizing the electron beam probing and Transmission Electron Microscopy (TEM) grids that will allow us to selectively illuminate different portions of the wake and to characterize the electric field strength within the wake based on the location of the focal point of the probe beamlets. The analytical evaluation of the approach and supporting simulation results will be presented and discussed.  
slides icon Slides WEZE6 [4.719 MB]  
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WEPA41 Maximizing Output of 3 MeV S-band Industrial Accelerator 723
  • D. Fischer, M. Denney, A.V. Mishin, S. Proskin, J. Roylance, L. Young
    Varex Imaging, Salt Lake City, USA
  Earlier, we have reported on a record-breaking 3-MeV Accelerator Beam Centerline (ABC) built in 2017-2018. An upgraded version of this 3-MeV S-band ABC has been developed at Varex Imaging as a key component for one of the most popular X-ray industrial linear accelerator systems, commonly used for security and NDT applications. Being significantly strained by excessive backstreaming, increasing of the ABC output is a challenging task. We describe these challenges and highlight high power test results. The triode gun and structure design improvements allowed us to raise stable output up to 530 Rad/min/1m at 3 MeV and up to 220 Rad/min/1m at 4.5 MeV with a widely available 2.5-MW/2.7-kW magnetron, while maintaining the spot size at 2 mm.  
DOI • reference for this paper ※ doi:10.18429/JACoW-NAPAC2022-WEPA41  
About • Received ※ 03 August 2022 — Revised ※ 08 August 2022 — Accepted ※ 11 August 2022 — Issue date ※ 20 September 2022
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WEPA43 Self-Contained Linac Irradiator for the Sterile Insect Technique (SIT) 728
  • A. Diego, R.B. Agustsson, R.D. Berry, S. Boucher, O. Chimalpopoca, S.V. Kutsaev, A.Yu. Smirnov, V.S. Yu
    RadiaBeam, Santa Monica, California, USA
  • S.J. Coleman
    RadiaSoft LLC, Boulder, Colorado, USA
  Funding: This work was financed by the US department of energy SBIR grant no. DE- SC0020010.
A 3-MeV X-band linac has been developed employing a cost-effective split structure design in order to replace radioactive isotope irradiators currently used for the Sterile Insect Technique (SIT) and other applications. The penetration of a Co-60 irradiator can be matched with Bremsstrahlung produced by a 3-MeV electron beam. The use of electron accelerators eliminates security risks and hazards inherent with radioactive sources. We present the current state of this X-band split structure linac and the rest of the irradiator system.
DOI • reference for this paper ※ doi:10.18429/JACoW-NAPAC2022-WEPA43  
About • Received ※ 04 August 2022 — Revised ※ 06 August 2022 — Accepted ※ 12 August 2022 — Issue date ※ 16 September 2022
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Accelerator Searches for Axions and Dark Matter  
  • R. van de Water
    LANL, Los Alamos, New Mexico, USA
  This talk will give an overview of the theory and the accelerator and detector techniques used for dark sector searches. As an example, the talk will then focus on a recent and local experiment, the Coherent CAPTAIN-Mills (CCM), which has begun running at the LANSCE Lujan center. In a three year run CCM will search for sub-GeV dark matter with sensitivities that probe early Universe relic density limits. It will also probe for Axion Like Particles (ALP’s) parameter space un-tested by previous experiments and cosmological constraints, and test new interpretation of the legendary LSND and MiniBooNE excesses. CCM will operate at the Lujan Center at LANSCE which is a 100-kW neutron and stopped pion source that delivers an 800-MeV proton beam onto a tungsten target at 20 Hz with a pulse width of 290 ns. The 10 ton liquid argon CCM detector is placed 23 m from the target and is instrumented with 200 fast nano-second 8" PMT’s that can detect scattering events in time with the beam from as low as 10 keV thresholds up to 200 MeV. Initial data results will be shown demonstrating the power of the new experiment.  
slides icon Slides FRCDE1 [28.162 MB]  
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Accelerator Production of Medical Radionuclides  
  • C.S. Cutler, D. Kim, D. Medvedev
    BNL, Upton, New York, USA
  Since 1931 major advances have enabled the production of small compact cyclotrons to be installed at hospitals and pharmacies enabling the supply of short-lived radionuclides around the world. This and the development of the generator allowed for remote access to radionuclides and the expansion of nuclear medicine. In the 1970’s and 80’s major accelerator facilities operating at 100 MeV and higher were installed in many of the national labs and used for production of radionuclides at energies and currents not available on the small compact machines. These high energy accelerators have played an important role in supplying Radionuclides such as Sr-82 used in Sr/Rb generators for cardiac imaging and Ac-225 for cancer therapy. They continue to be advanced to further production yields by installing beam rastering systems that have allowed higher intensities and thus higher production yields. As well as adding mass separation techniques that enable novel radionuclides to be produced in quality suitable for use. These enhanced accelerator capabilities and the production of these novel radionuclides will be presented.  
slides icon Slides FRCDE2 [7.275 MB]  
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Radiation Effects in Microelectronics - Why We Need Particle Accelerators  
  • J.A. Pellish
    NASA Goddard Space Flight Center, Greenbelt, USA
  We have seen anomalies due to radiation effects in electronic devices since the mid-1970s. We group radiation effects into different categories: one of which is single-event effects (SEE). SEE are any measurable or observable change in state or performance of a microelectronic device, component, subsystem, or system resulting from a single energetic-particle strike. Today, SEE dominate radiation risks for many ground- and space-based systems. Engineers require knowledge of SEE susceptibility for devices and systems since it impacts both availability and reliability. Design teams frequently use particle accelerators to simulate ionizing radiation environments. The rapid growth of systems operating in harsh radiation environments has pushed accelerator facility access constraints to the breaking point. Investments in new radiation effects testing infrastructure have begun. Meanwhile, there remain unanswered questions about accelerator facility workforce and potential business model impacts on existing ecosystems. We must maintain existing facility access as while building out new capabilities, or risk unacceptable impacts to product development and space system operations.  
slides icon Slides FRCDE3 [24.585 MB]  
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